Ansible Ad-hoc Command Guide med eksempler

Ad-hoc-kommandoer brukes i Ansible for å utføre oppgaver umiddelbart, og du trenger ikke lagre dem for senere bruk. Denne artikkelen handler om Ansible Ad-hoc Command.

Det er flere oppgaver i Ansible der du ikke trenger å skrive en egen Ansible-spillebok for den; du kan bare kjøre en passende ad-hoc-kommando for den oppgaven. Disse er one-liner-kommandoer for å utføre en enkelt oppgave på målverten. Disse kommandoene finnes i /usr/bin/ansible

Oppgaver som å pinge alle vertene for å sjekke om de kjører, kopiere en fil, starte servere på nytt, installere en pakke kan enkelt gjøres gjennom Ansible Ad-hoc Commands. Her er en liste over grunnleggende Ansible Ad-hoc-kommandoer som du må kjenne til.

Grunnleggende kommandoer

Ad-hoc-kommandoen nedenfor kjører en ping-modul på alle vertene i inventarfilen. Her er -m alternativet for en modul.

<strong>[email protected]:/home/tipsbilk.net# ansible all -m ping</strong>
node1 | SUCCESS => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"
    }, 
    "changed": false, 
    "ping": "pong"
}

Kommandoen nevnt nedenfor kjører oppsettmodulen på en gruppe verter – klient tilstede i inventarfilen «/etc/ansible/hosts».

[email protected]:/home/tipsbilk.net# ansible Client -m setup -a "filter=ansible_distribution*"
node1 | SUCCESS => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "ansible_distribution": "Ubuntu", 
        "ansible_distribution_file_parsed": true, 
        "ansible_distribution_file_path": "/etc/os-release", 
        "ansible_distribution_file_variety": "Debian", 
        "ansible_distribution_major_version": "18", 
        "ansible_distribution_release": "cosmic", 
        "ansible_distribution_version": "18.10", 
        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"
    }, 
    "changed": false
}

Kommandoen nedenfor brukes til å be om SSH-passordautentisering. Du må legge til -spør-pass-alternativet på slutten av kommandoen. Etter å ha kjørt kommandoen, vil den be deg om å angi SSH-passordet.

[email protected]:/home/tipsbilk.net# ansible Client -m ping --ask-pass
SSH password: 
node1 | SUCCESS => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"
    }, 
    "changed": false, 
    "ping": "pong"
}

Kommandoen nedenfor gir deg funksjonen til å kjøre ad-hoc-kommandoer som en ikke-rootbruker med root-privilegier. Alternativet –become gir root-privilegier og -K-alternativet ber om passordet.

[email protected]:/home/tipsbilk.net# ansible Client -m shell -a 'fdisk -l' -u tipsbilk.net --become -K
BECOME password: 
node1 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
Disk /dev/loop0: 14.5 MiB, 15208448 bytes, 29704 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/loop2: 42.1 MiB, 44183552 bytes, 86296 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/loop3: 149.9 MiB, 157184000 bytes, 307000 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/loop5: 140.7 MiB, 147501056 bytes, 288088 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/loop6: 151.2 MiB, 158584832 bytes, 309736 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/loop7: 14.8 MiB, 15458304 bytes, 30192 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/sda: 500 GiB, 536870912000 bytes, 1048576000 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0xcef957f5

Device     Boot     Start        End   Sectors   Size Id Type
/dev/sda1            2048  462639103 462637056 220.6G 83 Linux
/dev/sda2  *    462639104  464592895   1953792   954M 83 Linux
/dev/sda3       464592896  482168831  17575936   8.4G 82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda4       482168832 1048573951 566405120 270.1G 83 Linux


Disk /dev/loop8: 4 MiB, 4218880 bytes, 8240 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

Denne ad-hoc-kommandoen brukes til å starte systemet på nytt med -f-alternativet for å definere antall gafler.

[email protected]:/home/tipsbilk.net# ansible Client -a "/sbin/reboot" -f 1

Filoverføring

Den aktuelle ad-hoc-kommandoen nedenfor brukes til å kopiere en fil fra en kilde til en destinasjon for en gruppe verter (klient) definert i inventarfilen. Etter at du har skrevet inn passordet, vil utdata med «endre»-parameteren være «true», som betyr at filen har blitt kopiert til destinasjonen.

[email protected]:/home/tipsbilk.net# ansible Client -m copy -a 'src=/home/tipsbilk.net/nginx.yml dest=/home/tipsbilk.net/Desktop/ owner=root mode=0644' -u root --become -K
BECOME password: 
node1 | CHANGED => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"
    }, 
    "changed": true, 
    "checksum": "5631822866afd5f19b928edb3ba018385df22dd3", 
    "dest": "/home/tipsbilk.net/Desktop/nginx.yml", 
    "gid": 0, 
    "group": "root", 
    "md5sum": "0d6ffe1069fc25ad4f8ad700277c4634", 
    "mode": "0644", 
    "owner": "root", 
    "size": 280, 
    "src": "/root/.ansible/tmp/ansible-tmp-1562253463.3-214622150088155/source", 
    "state": "file", 
    "uid": 0
}

Kjør kommandoen nedenfor for å bekrefte om kopimodulen fungerte riktig eller ikke. Den kopierte filen skal komme til destinasjonen nevnt i forrige kommando.

[email protected]:/home/tipsbilk.net# ls Desktop/

nginx.yml

Jeg oppretter en ny katalog for å kjøre hentemodul n neste ad-hoc-kommando.

[email protected]:/home/tipsbilk.net# mkdir example

[email protected]:/home/tipsbilk.net# ls

Desktop  Documents  example  examples.desktop  nginx_new.yml  nginx.yml

Den aktuelle ad-hoc-kommandoen nedenfor brukes til å laste ned en fil fra en vert definert i kommandoen. I denne kommandoen laster vi ned en fil ved hjelp av hentemodulen fra node1-serveren til en lokal destinasjon på en mulig node.

[email protected]:/home/tipsbilk.net# ansible node1 -m fetch -a 'src=/etc/sudoers.d/nginx.yml dest=/home/tipsbilk.net/example/ flat=yes'

node1 | SUCCESS => {

    "changed": false,

    "checksum": "5631822866afd5f19b928edb3ba018385df22dd3",

    "dest": "/home/tipsbilk.net/example/nginx.yml",

    "file": "/etc/sudoers.d/nginx.yml",

    "md5sum": "0d6ffe1069fc25ad4f8ad700277c4634"

}

Sjekk om filen ble lastet ned eller ikke på destinasjonen nevnt i kommandoen.

[email protected]:/home/tipsbilk.net# ls example

nginx.yml

Administrer pakker

Kommandoen nevnt nedenfor installerer nginx på en gruppe verter (klient) nevnt ved hjelp av en apt-modul.

[email protected]:/home/tipsbilk.net# ansible Client -m apt -a 'name=nginx state=latest' --become

node1 | SUCCESS => {

    "ansible_facts": {

        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"

    },

    "cache_update_time": 1562411227,

    "cache_updated": false,

    "changed": false

}

Kommandoen nevnt nedenfor fjerner nginx på en gruppe verter (klient) ved å bruke apt-modulen og renser alle relaterte konfigurasjoner.

[email protected]:/home/tipsbilk.net# ansible Client -m apt -a 'name=nginx state=absent purge=yes' --become

node1 | CHANGED => {

    "ansible_facts": {

        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"

    },

    "changed": true,

    "stderr": "",

    "stderr_lines": [],

    "stdout": "Reading package lists...nBuilding dependency tree...nReading state information...nThe following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required:n  libnginx-mod-http-geoip libnginx-mod-http-image-filtern  libnginx-mod-http-xslt-filter libnginx-mod-mail libnginx-mod-streamn  nginx-common nginx-corenUse 'sudo apt autoremove' to remove them.nThe following packages will be REMOVED:n  nginx*n0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 1 to remove and 241 not upgraded.nAfter this operation, 44.0 kB disk space will be freed.n(Reading database ... r(Reading database ... 5%r(Reading database ... 10%r(Reading database ... 15%r(Reading database ... 20%r(Reading database ... 25%r(Reading database ... 30%r(Reading database ... 35%r(Reading database ... 40%r(Reading database ... 45%r(Reading database ... 50%r(Reading database ... 55%r(Reading database ... 60%r(Reading database ... 65%r(Reading database ... 70%r(Reading database ... 75%r(Reading database ... 80%r(Reading database ... 85%r(Reading database ... 90%r(Reading database ... 95%r(Reading database ... 100%r(Reading database ... 180191 files and directories currently installed.)rnRemoving nginx (1.15.5-0ubuntu2.1) ...rn",

    "stdout_lines": [

        "Reading package lists...",

        "Building dependency tree...",

        "Reading state information...",

        "The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required:",

        "  libnginx-mod-http-geoip libnginx-mod-http-image-filter",

        "  libnginx-mod-http-xslt-filter libnginx-mod-mail libnginx-mod-stream",

        "  nginx-common nginx-core",

        "Use 'sudo apt autoremove' to remove them.",

        "The following packages will be REMOVED:",

        "  nginx*",

        "0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 1 to remove and 241 not upgraded.",

        "After this operation, 44.0 kB disk space will be freed.",

        "(Reading database ... ",

        "(Reading database ... 5%",

        "(Reading database ... 10%",

        "(Reading database ... 15%",

        "(Reading database ... 20%",

        "(Reading database ... 25%",

        "(Reading database ... 30%",

        "(Reading database ... 35%",

        "(Reading database ... 40%",

        "(Reading database ... 45%",

        "(Reading database ... 50%",

        "(Reading database ... 55%",

        "(Reading database ... 60%",

        "(Reading database ... 65%",

        "(Reading database ... 70%",

        "(Reading database ... 75%",

        "(Reading database ... 80%",

        "(Reading database ... 85%",

        "(Reading database ... 90%",

        "(Reading database ... 95%",

        "(Reading database ... 100%",

        "(Reading database ... 180191 files and directories currently installed.)",

        "Removing nginx (1.15.5-0ubuntu2.1) ..."

    ]

}

Administrer tjenester

Den mulige ad-hoc-kommandoen nedenfor kjører servicemodulen for å starte nginx på verten. Tilstandsverdien skal startes.

[email protected]:/home/tipsbilk.net# ansible Client -m service -a 'name=nginx state=started enabled=yes' --become

node1 | SUCCESS => {

    "ansible_facts": {

        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"

    },

    "changed": false,

    "enabled": true,

    "name": "nginx",

    "state": "started",

    "status": {

        "ActiveEnterTimestamp": "Sat 2019-07-06 08:28:02 EDT",

        "ActiveEnterTimestampMonotonic": "31411371",

        "ActiveExitTimestampMonotonic": "0",

        "ActiveState": "active",

        "After": "sysinit.target system.slice systemd-journald.socket basic.target network.target",

        "AllowIsolate": "no",

        "AmbientCapabilities": "",

        "AssertResult": "yes",

        "AssertTimestamp": "Sat 2019-07-06 08:27:59 EDT",

        "AssertTimestampMonotonic": "27694868",

        "Before": "multi-user.target shutdown.target",

        "BlockIOAccounting": "no",

        "BlockIOWeight": "[not set]",

        "CapabilityBoundingSet": "cap_chown cap_dac_override cap_dac_read_search cap_fowner cap_fsetid cap_kill cap_setgid cap_setuid cap_setpcap cap_linux_immutable cap_net_bind_service cap_net_broadcast cap_net_admin cap_net_raw cap_ipc_lock cap_ipc_owner cap_sys_module cap_sys_rawio cap_sys_chroot cap_sys_ptrace cap_sys_pacct cap_sys_admin cap_sys_boot cap_sys_nice cap_sys_resource cap_sys_time cap_sys_tty_config cap_mknod cap_lease cap_audit_write cap_audit_control cap_setfcap cap_mac_override cap_mac_admin cap_syslog cap_wake_alarm cap_block_suspend",

        "CollectMode": "inactive",

        "ConditionResult": "yes",

        "ConditionTimestamp": "Sat 2019-07-06 08:27:59 EDT",

        "ConditionTimestampMonotonic": "27694867",

        "ConfigurationDirectoryMode": "0755",

        "Conflicts": "shutdown.target",

        "ControlGroup": "/system.slice/nginx.service",

        "ControlPID": "0",

        "ExecMainStartTimestamp": "Sat 2019-07-06 08:28:02 EDT",

        "ExecMainStartTimestampMonotonic": "31411353",

        "ExecMainStatus": "0",

        "ExecReload": "{ path=/usr/sbin/nginx ; argv[]=/usr/sbin/nginx -g daemon on; master_process on; -s reload ; ignore_errors=no ; start_time=[n/a] ; stop_time=[n/a] ; pid=0 ; code=(null) ; status=0/0 }",

        "ExecStart": "{ path=/usr/sbin/nginx ; argv[]=/usr/sbin/nginx -g daemon on; master_process on; ; ignore_errors=no ; start_time=[n/a] ; stop_time=[n/a] ; pid=0 ; code=(null) ; status=0/0 }",

        "ExecStartPre": "{ path=/usr/sbin/nginx ; argv[]=/usr/sbin/nginx -t -q -g daemon on; master_process on; ; ignore_errors=no ; start_time=[n/a] ; stop_time=[n/a] ; pid=0 ; code=(null) ; status=0/0 }",

        "ExecStop": "{ path=/sbin/start-stop-daemon ; argv[]=/sbin/start-stop-daemon --quiet --stop --retry QUIT/5 --pidfile /run/nginx.pid ; ignore_errors=yes ; start_time=[n/a] ; stop_time=[n/a] ; pid=0 ; code=(null) ; status=0/0 }",

        "FailureAction": "none",

        "FileDescriptorStoreMax": "0",

        "FragmentPath": "/lib/systemd/system/nginx.service",

        "GID": "[not set]",

        "GuessMainPID": "yes",

        "IOAccounting": "no",

        "IOSchedulingClass": "0",

        "IOSchedulingPriority": "0",

        "IOWeight": "[not set]",

    }

}

Nedenfor kjører tjenestemodulen for å stoppe nginx på verten. Tilstandsverdien endres til stoppet.

[email protected]:/home/tipsbilk.net# ansible Client -m service -a 'name=nginx state=stopped' --become

node1 | CHANGED => {

    "ansible_facts": {

        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"

    },

    "changed": true,

    "name": "nginx",

    "state": "stopped",

    "status": {

        "ActiveEnterTimestamp": "Sat 2019-07-06 08:28:02 EDT",

        "ActiveEnterTimestampMonotonic": "31411371",

        "ActiveExitTimestampMonotonic": "0",

        "ActiveState": "active",

        "After": "sysinit.target system.slice systemd-journald.socket basic.target network.target",

        "AllowIsolate": "no",

        "AmbientCapabilities": "",

        "AssertResult": "yes",

        "AssertTimestamp": "Sat 2019-07-06 08:27:59 EDT",

        "AssertTimestampMonotonic": "27694868",

        "Before": "multi-user.target shutdown.target",

        "BlockIOAccounting": "no",

        "BlockIOWeight": "[not set]",

        "CPUAccounting": "no",

        "CPUQuotaPerSecUSec": "infinity",

        "CanReload": "yes",

        "CanStart": "yes",

        "CanStop": "yes",

        "CapabilityBoundingSet": "cap_chown cap_dac_override cap_dac_read_search cap_fowner cap_fsetid cap_kill cap_setgid cap_setuid cap_setpcap cap_linux_immutable cap_net_bind_service cap_net_broadcast cap_net_admin cap_net_raw cap_ipc_lock cap_ipc_owner cap_sys_module cap_sys_rawio cap_sys_chroot cap_sys_ptrace cap_sys_pacct cap_sys_admin cap_sys_boot cap_sys_nice cap_sys_resource cap_sys_time cap_sys_tty_config cap_mknod cap_lease cap_audit_write cap_audit_control cap_setfcap cap_mac_override cap_mac_admin cap_syslog cap_wake_alarm cap_block_suspend",

        "CollectMode": "inactive",

        "ConditionResult": "yes",

        "ConditionTimestamp": "Sat 2019-07-06 08:27:59 EDT",

        "ConditionTimestampMonotonic": "27694867",

        "ConfigurationDirectoryMode": "0755",

        "Conflicts": "shutdown.target",

        "ControlGroup": "/system.slice/nginx.service",

        "ControlPID": "0",

        "DefaultDependencies": "yes",

        "Delegate": "no",

        "Description": "A high performance web server and a reverse proxy server",

        "DevicePolicy": "auto",

        "Documentation": "man:nginx(8)",

        "DynamicUser": "no",

  }

}

Kontrollerer systemet

Den ansible ad-hoc-kommandoen nevnt nedenfor kjører en shell-modul for å sjekke disken som er tilgjengelig på rotpartisjoner.

[email protected]:/home/tipsbilk.net# ansible Client -m shell -a 'df -h /dev/sda2' --become

node1 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>

Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on

/dev/sda2       923M  113M  748M  14% /boot

Denne kommandoen nevnt nedenfor kjører en skallmodul for å sjekke ledig minne (RAM) på verten.

[email protected]:/home/tipsbilk.net# ansible Client -m shell -a 'free -m' --become

node1 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>

              total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available

Mem:           5101         854        2760          27        1487        3947

Swap:          8581           0        8581

Denne kommandoen sjekker oppetiden til hver server som kjører.

[email protected]:/home/tipsbilk.net# ansible Client -a "uptime"

node1 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>

 11:31:17 up 1 day,  2:40,  2 users,  load average: 0.23, 0.05, 0.02

Innhenting av fakta

Den mulige ad-hoc-kommandoen nedenfor vil gi deg all ad-hoc-informasjon om systemet ditt, inkludert alle variablene som finnes i systemet.

[email protected]:/home/tipsbilk.net# ansible all -m setup

node1 | SUCCESS => {

    "ansible_facts": {

        "ansible_all_ipv4_addresses": [

            "172.17.0.1",

            "10.0.2.15"

        ],

        "ansible_all_ipv6_addresses": [

            "fe80::763e:c0b4:14df:b273"

        ],

        "ansible_apparmor": {

            "status": "enabled"

        },

        "ansible_architecture": "x86_64",

        "ansible_bios_date": "12/01/2006",

        "ansible_bios_version": "VirtualBox",

        "ansible_cmdline": {

            "BOOT_IMAGE": "/vmlinuz-4.18.0-25-generic",

            "quiet": true,

            "ro": true,

            "root": "UUID=5f85d8b7-0ab2-48c9-9e6e-4ecfbcbdaa83",

            "splash": true

        },

        "ansible_date_time": {

            "date": "2019-07-07",

            "day": "07",

            "epoch": "1562525628",

            "hour": "14",

            "iso8601": "2019-07-07T18:53:48Z",

            "iso8601_basic": "20190707T145348850596",

            "iso8601_basic_short": "20190707T145348",

            "iso8601_micro": "2019-07-07T18:53:48.850697Z",

            "minute": "53",

            "month": "07",

            "second": "48",

            "time": "14:53:48",

            "tz": "EDT",

            "tz_offset": "-0400",

            "weekday": "Sunday",

            "weekday_number": "0",

            "weeknumber": "26",

            "year": "2019"

        },

        "ansible_default_ipv4": {

            "address": "10.0.2.15",

            "alias": "enp0s3",

            "broadcast": "10.0.2.255",

            "gateway": "10.0.2.2",

            "interface": "enp0s3",

            "macaddress": "08:00:27:68:64:9a",

            "mtu": 1500,

            "netmask": "255.255.255.0",

            "network": "10.0.2.0",

            "type": "ether"

        },

        "ansible_default_ipv6": {},

        "ansible_device_links": {

            "ids": {

                "sda": [

                    "ata-VBOX_HARDDISK_VB3a0a2351-0b6c0ed5"

                ],

                "sda1": [

                    "ata-VBOX_HARDDISK_VB3a0a2351-0b6c0ed5-part1"

                ],

                "sda2": [

                    "ata-VBOX_HARDDISK_VB3a0a2351-0b6c0ed5-part2"

                ],

                "sda3": [

                    "ata-VBOX_HARDDISK_VB3a0a2351-0b6c0ed5-part3"

                ],

                "sda4": [

                    "ata-VBOX_HARDDISK_VB3a0a2351-0b6c0ed5-part4"

                ],

                "sr0": [

                    "ata-VBOX_CD-ROM_VB2-01700376"

                ]

            },

            "labels": {

                "sr0": [

                    "VBox_GAs_6.0.2"

                ]

            },

            "masters": {},

            "uuids": {

                "sda1": [

                    "5f85d8b7-0ab2-48c9-9e6e-4ecfbcbdaa83"

                ],

                "sda2": [

                    "b8b7f87b-c3bf-48ed-a44c-f9b3ce0afbe5"

                ],

                "sda3": [

                    "a6c77fa6-e292-4a0d-b21f-8804f1949bbd"

                ],

                "sda4": [

                    "8207f970-4d9a-47db-a5d5-f620e5b17b7b"

                ],

                "sr0": [

                    "2019-01-14-14-57-19-65"

                ]

            }

        },

        "ansible_devices": {

            "loop0": {

                "holders": [],

                "host": "",

                "links": {

                    "ids": [],

                    "labels": [],

                    "masters": [],

                    "uuids": []

                },

                "model": null,

                "partitions": {},

                "removable": "0",

                "rotational": "1",

                "sas_address": null,

                "sas_device_handle": null,

                "scheduler_mode": "none",

                "sectors": "29704",

                "sectorsize": "512",

                "size": "14.50 MB",

                "support_discard": "4096",

                "vendor": null,

                "virtual": 1

            },

            "loop1": {

                "holders": [],

                "host": "",

                "links": {

                    "ids": [],

                    "labels": [],

                    "masters": [],

                    "uuids": []

                },

                "model": null,

                "partitions": {},

                "removable": "0",

                "rotational": "1",

                "sas_address": null,

                "sas_device_handle": null,

                "scheduler_mode": "none",

                "sectors": "0",

                "sectorsize": "512",

                "size": "0.00 Bytes",

                "support_discard": "4096",

                "vendor": null,

                "virtual": 1

            },

}

Så det handlet om Ansible ad-hoc-kommandoer. Gå videre og prøv disse kommandoene på ditt mulige oppsett. Bruk disse kommandoene til å kjøre ansible-moduler uten å skrive noen Ansible-spillebok for å utføre disse oppgavene. Skriv en kommentar hvis du har problemer med å kjøre disse kommandoene.

  Fiks Netflix feilkode UI3012

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